Climate Vulnerability: Extreme climate phenomena such as El Niño and La Niña, bring droughts, floods and cyclones on a regular basis to Mozambique. Data from the Institute for Disaster Relief show that, between 1985 and 2008, over 16 million people were affected by droughts and over 100,000 people died as a result. Between January and May 2019, the country was hit by tropical cyclones Idai, Kenneth and Desmond, displacing tens of thousands of people and destroying infrastructure and livelihoods. Cyclones have affected almost a third of the country, especially the coastal provinces undermining national efforts to reduce poverty, improve food and nutritional security, expand infrastructure and services and reach the targets set out in the Sustainable Development Goals.
National Response: Mozambique is undergoing a major decentralization and deconcentration reform that will see the gradual transfer of responsibilities, personnel and funding to the provincial and district level. In 2018, a constitutional amendment allowed the entry of new decentralized and deconcentrated hybrid bodies characterized by the election, in 2019, of governors and members of provincial assemblies with their own powers. The process is due to be completed with general elections in 2024 and will see transfer of a host of responsibilities to district level including many that are key to climate change adaptation suhc as: preservation of the environment; commerce and industry; water supply;natural resource management; energy resources; transportation and public transit, participatory local development; public services; public works; and recreation, culture and tourism.