Tanzania counts 169 Districts in 39 Regions and a population of 56.31 million people. LoCAL is engaged in 4 districts in Tanzania.

Climate Vulnerability:

The destructive impact of climate change is in evident in 60 per cent of the country in the form of droughts, floods, sea level rise and increased water-borne diseases. Tanzania’s economic growth depends heavily on its environmental and natural resources, with more than 80 per cent of the population dependent on them for income generation. Critical challenges threaten these resources, including their unsustainable harvesting and use, unchecked cultivation practices, degradation of and encroachment on water sources, and the impacts of climate change and extreme weather events.

National Response

Tanzania’s economic growth depends heavily on its environmental and natural resources, with more than 80 per cent of the population dependent on them for income generation. Critical challenges threaten these resources, including their unsustainable harvesting and use, unchecked cultivation practices, degradation of and encroachment on water sources, and the impacts of climate change and extreme weather events. Climate change – evident in 60 per cent of the country – is manifested in droughts, floods, sea level rise and increased water-borne diseases. Given these threats, the government sees an urgent need to protect and manage the environment and its natural resources. In 2012, Tanzania launched its National Climate Change Strategy.
The strategy covers adaptation, mitigation and cross-cutting interventions; and outlines the importance of establishing institutions and policies at the national level for climate change planning – including a climate change finance mechanism.

With UNCDF support, Tanzania has both an efficiently functioning system of local governments and a well-developed intergovernmental fiscal transfer system, which has introduced performance-based elements over the past decade. A policy of decentralization by devolution gives local governments significant roles and responsibilities in implementing government policies and programmes. This includes supporting efforts to achieve national development goals (e.g. Vision 2025), as well as international goals such as the Sustainable Development Goals and other regional and international protocols and development frameworks. As to its intergovernmental fiscal transfer system, Tanzania has been reforming and strengthening it to include considerations on the impact of climate change and opportunities for climate change funding.



LoCAL-Tanzania joined the Government of Tanzania and its partners from the civil society and other governmental institutions to implement a 5 year ‘Decentralised Climate Finance programme’. The aim is to bring climate adaptation funding to local communities, making sure they play a part in deciding how these resources are spent. This will be accomplished by linking financial capital from the Green Climate Fund (GCF) with local governments in communities, starting in 15 test-districts in mainland Tanzania and three districts in Zanzibar.

LoCAL-Tanzania will support the Chamwino, Mpwapwa and Kondoa districts in identifying priority adaptation measures to be financed with PBCRGs. Synergies with other initiatives, such as the UKAid-financed Accountability in Tanzania (AcT-2) Programme, will ensure enhanced capacity- building support to districts and communities during the planning process.

3 Districts engaged

35 Adaptation investments

846,281 people in Districts engaged

Budget: US$ 222,453 (2014-20)



LoCAL-Tanzania is embedded in the Local Climate Finance Initiative (LCFI), a programme jointly implemented by UNCDF, the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and the Government of Tanzania, represented by the President’s Office – Regional Administration and Local Government (PO-RALG). The LCFI aims to increase awareness and capacities to respond to climate change at the local level; integrate climate change adaptation into local governments’ planning and budgeting systems in a participatory and gender-responsive manner; and increase the level of climate finance available to local government authorities for climate-smart, resilient investments.

The LCFI builds on LoCAL and aims to promote climate-resilient communities and local economies by enabling climate finance to reach the most vulnerable while complementing existing development finance in line with the Sustainable Development Goals and national policies, particularly Vision 2025, the country’s nationally determined contributions and the forthcoming national adaptation plan. To achieve this, the LCFI has two specific objectives:
■ Strengthen PO-RALG capacities to become an accredited national implementing entity of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and channel climate finance initially to 15 local government authorities, and then nation-wide
■ Build PO-RALG and local government authority capacities to mainstream climate change and community-driven adaptation into local government authorities’ development planning and financial systems in support of climate-resilient development and low-carbon growth


  • In 2016, the PO-RALG signed a project implementation agreement with the IIED and UNCDF to guide implementation of the Decentralized Climate Finance Programme (DCF), which later resulted in the launch of the LCFI.

  • The DCF project (2016–2018), financed by UKAid, invested more than $1 million in 35 climate- resilient and adaptation projects in the districts of Monduli, Longido and Ngorongoro (Arusha region), engaging women and traditional leaders in planning. Manuals for resource mapping and resilience assessments were developed as planning tools for local government authorities, and entities such as the Institute for Rural Development Planning and the Local Government Training Institute incorporated climate change issues into their curricula. Lessons acquired in this phase were incorporated in the LCFI.

  • A field mission aimed at elaborating and validating the Annual Performance Assessment Manual for the LoCAL performance-based climate resilience grant (PBCRG) mechanism under the LCFI was held in mid-December 2017; the final draft of the manual was completed in mid- January 2018 and shared with key stakeholders.

  • In 2019, the PO-RALG, in partnership with UNCDF and IIED, hosted a partner meeting in Dar es Salaam to launch the LCFI and discuss how the programme would move forward. Many development partners participated in the event, including the World Bank, UN agencies, UKAid, the European Union, Italy, Norway and Sweden. During the event, a memorandum of understanding and letter of agreement were signed between the Government of Tanzania and UNCDF for the LoCAL pilot.

  • The PBCRG mechanism, with support from the European Union’s Global Climate Change Alliance Plus (GCCA+) and under the LCFI, will be piloted in three districts of the Dodoma region – Chamwino, Mpwapwa and Kondoa – potentially benefiting more than 800,000 people, particularly women. It will be run for two fiscal cycles, delivering PBCRGs worth $50,000 per district/financial cycle. The objective is to scale up the LCFI mechanism to other districts from 2021 onwards, with support from development partners.

  • A technical mission to the target districts was organized in 2019 to train district officials on the PBCRG mechanism, including on performance indicators, minimum conditions, climate change adaptation plans, investment menu and the financial circuit.

  • The PO-RALG was nominated as the country’s national implementing entity for the GCF eleand is pursuing efforts towards accreditation. A final draft of the PO-RALG institutional assessment report, presented during a workshop in early 2018, aimed to help the PO-RALG identify its strengths and weaknesses, as well as address needs with regard to the GCF’s six relevant accreditation standards. Based on the assessment, the PO-RALG submitted its official application in 2019 to become a GCF national implementing entity. The PO-RALG has received comments from the GCF Secretariat on its proposal and is currently working with partners to address them.

Way Forward

  • With support from the GCCA+, the PBCRG mechanism will be piloted in three districts of the Dodoma region and scaled up to other districts beginning in 2021 with support from development partners and as resources are mobilized.
  • LoCAL will continue exploring partnerships to allow scale-up of PBCRGs and capacity building to additional districts.
  • LoCAL will provide follow-up and technical assistance to support the PO-RALG throughout the GCF accreditation process.

More Information

Climate change adaptation falls within the core mandate of community councils, along with land use planning, natural resource management and infrastructure development. Climate change adaptation requires effective coordination of various stakeholders. As a gateway for development facilitation at the local level as well as custodians of all development, community councils are strategically positioned to play this coordination role. However, community councils seldom have sufficient resources to execute these functions.

The overall outcome of LoCAL-Lesotho is to improve the climate change resilience of the communities in the selected councils as a result of climate change adaptation activities funded through the performance-based climate resilience grant (PBCRG) and capacity development support. By promoting climate change–resilient communities and economies via increasing financing for and investment in climate change adaptation at the local level, LoCAL-Lesotho will directly contribute to one of the country’s development plan pillars – reversing environmental degradation and adapting to climate change.

The objectives for LoCAL-Lesotho are as follows:

• Increased transfer of climate finance to local governments through national institutions and systems for building verifiable climate change adaptation and resilience

• A standard and recognized country-based mechanism which supports direct access to international climate finance

Four outputs are envisaged:

(i) inclusive and accountable climate change adaptation is mainstreamed into local council planning;

(ii) government, local authority and population awareness of and capacities in adaptation and resilience planning are improved;

(iii) an effective country PBCRG finance mechanism is established and operational, providing additional funding to targeted community councils; and

(iv) experience and lessons learned are consolidated and shared.waiting results of annual performance assessment (APA). Lessons are being drawn from the LoCAL pilot to expand the LoCAL and its PBCRG mechanism to additional community councils in Lesotho and to attract additional finance to be channelled through the LoCAL mechanism to finance locally led adaptation and increase resilience of communities and local economies. This intends to prepare for a fully integrated mechanism into the country systems and a scaling-up country-wide.



Way Forward

Stories from the Field


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